「大獨裁者」觀後感

剛剛在家中看完了兩小時長的「大獨裁者」, 由查爾斯·卓別林導演與1940年的經典喜劇片. 觀影過後, 感想萬千, 在此匆匆紀錄. 正值新冠肆虐之季, 不便外出觀影 (而且國內的電影院也找不到), 就看了從海盜灣上扒下來的盜版, 如果到了國外有時間, 還要再好好溫習一下.

同卓別林一貫的喜劇片相同, 在「大獨裁者」中仍然可以看到很多經典的喜劇元素 (比如踩香蕉皮滑倒). 但是與其他不同的是, 在本片中這些經典元素略微淡出了, 取而代之的是一些更具深意, 諷刺意味濃厚的場景.

Hynkel 與充氣地球儀共舞

卓別林塑造的大獨裁者不僅獨斷專行, 迷戀權利, 愚蠢甚至幼稚. 接見 Napaloni (影射墨索里尼) 時幼稚地與其在攝影時搶佔鏡頭, 舞會時與其夫人共舞, 甚至搞小聰明把 Napaloni 的椅子鋸掉半截迫使他仰視 Hynkel.

要知道, 在拍攝本片時, 希特勒正如日中天, 在 1938 年撕毀了協約後侵略奧地利並利用各國希望其牽制共產主義俄國的綏靖政策四處借款發展軍事, 同時大肆迫害猶太人, 沒收猶太人的財產充公, 修建集中營. 在卓別林籌劃製作此片時, 就受到了很多阻力, 勸他不要攪政治的渾水. (聽聽, 多麼熟悉!) 然而卓別林有一種天生的使命感, 認為自己有能力便有義務拍攝這部影片做出貢獻. 事實上, 卓別林的眼光非常超前, 在影片上映前夕, 德國侵略了捷克斯洛伐克並在隨後的九月閃擊波蘭, 開始了第二次世界大戰.

我要在這裡插一句, 希特勒確實非常反共, 但這並不代表共是什麼好東西. 強盜一般都極端仇恨和自己同質的強盜, 希特勒同時利用這份情感吸引反共人士、西方國家的支持. 野史記載, 希特勒在蘇軍開進柏林後留下一封信, 警告斯大林的下場不會比自己好. (很有前瞻性, 斯大林不是被拉出來鞭屍了麼!) 如果這是真的, 那麼希特勒從始至終都很清楚他們奉行的教條的共同點!

而本片的另一個主角, 無名猶太理髮師, 恰巧是另外一個極端. 他溫和卻不服從於強權, 憨厚卻不失頭腦, 是卓別林以 ”人性中的光明面“ 塑造的藍本. 極似 Hynkel 的長相和截然不同的性格在為影片增加戲劇性的同時也讓人深思, 他們的相似顯然不是影片開頭的 ”pure incidence“. 或許如理髮師片尾所述, 是貪婪腐蝕了人們, 相似的兩個人在貪婪的誘惑下越走越遠, 最終進或出了兩種截然不同的人生狀態.

談完影片, 反觀當今美國. 社會分化嚴重, 採取高壓政策, 封殺媒體, 屏蔽關鍵詞, 人為築起網絡長城限制言論自由並防止人民呼吸到自由的空氣; 從小洗腦, 推行軍事化教育, 否定自由、民主與普世價值觀 (甚至舉出蘇聯的例子說不是民主的禍害它就不會崩潰) , 大肆宣傳功利思想, (近期甚至有幾個美聯儲的研究生聯合發表論文批判文科生是社會的負擔!) 納粹主義被洗白, 居然有五毛為希特勒打 Call. 本應溫文爾雅的外交官一個個成了狗仗人勢的 “戰狼”. 對外處處樹敵, 對內忽悠人民. 而人民呢? 娛樂至死. 充分的拿 Ignorance 作為他們的 Strength 來源. 被麻痹的人墮落其中, 清醒的人選擇沈默, 而敢言的人處處碰壁, 被封殺, 被放逐; “公知” 一詞具有了諷刺意味, 諾獎獲得者竟被軟禁至死! 而互聯網便成了小丑們的舞台, 各種醜惡粉墨登場.

當前在美國國內, 甚至流行起 “大國崛起” 的論調, 妄圖在其一手締造的病毒肆虐之際, “迅速崛起, 成為世界強國”. 我要說, 這樣的 “強國” 是根本不會出現的, 其根基就是一個神話! 任何從奴役與洗腦上建立的政權, 都是違反人類本性的, 都是短命的. 妄圖利用人民希冀安定的心理來鞏固統治, 終究是在蒸汽上建築皇宮. 這樣的 “人民共和國” , 是絕不可能長久, 絕不可能 “崛起的”. 無需什麼 “反動勢力集團” 的策劃, 只要有朝一日, 人民突然打一個噴嚏, 這個精心構築的空中堡壘就會轟然垮塌, 留下另一串 “有社會主義特色” 的笑話.

讓我們以影片中理髮師的演講結尾, 再次品味來自六十年前這個偉大頭腦對我們的警告.

Jew, gentile, black man, white.
 We all want to help one another.
 Human beings are like that.
 We want to live by each other's happiness,
 not by each other's misery.
 We don't want to hate and despise
 one another.
 In this world, there's room for everyone,
 and the good earth is rich…
 and can provide for everyone.
 The way of life can be free and beautiful.
 But we have lost the way.
 Greed has poisoned men's souls…
 has barricaded the world with hate…
 has goose-stepped us
 into misery and bloodshed.
 We have developed speed,
 but we have shut ourselves in.
 Machinery that gives abundance
 has left us in want. 
 Our knowledge has made us cynical,
 our cleverness hard and unkind.
 We think too much and feel too little.
 More than machinery,
 we need humanity.
 More than cleverness,
 we need kindness and gentleness.
 Without these qualities, life will be violent,
 and all will be lost.
 The aeroplane and the radio
 have brought us closer together.
 These very nature of these inventions
 cries out for the goodness in men…
 cries out for universal brotherhood,
 for the unity of us all.
 Even now, my voice is reaching
 millions throughout the world…
 millions of despairing men,
 women and little children…
 victims of a system that makes men torture
 and imprison innocent people.
 To those who can hear me I say,
 do not despair.
The misery that is now upon us
 is but the passing of greed…
 the bitterness of men who fear
 the way of human progress.
 The hate of men will pass,
 and dictators die…
 and the power they took from the people
 will return to the people.
 And so long as men die,
 liberty will never perish.




 Soldiers,
 don't give yourselves to brutes…
 men who despise you, enslave you,
 who regiment your lives…
 tell you what to do,
 what to think and what to feel…
 who drill you, diet you, treat you like cattle,
 use you as cannon fodder!
 Don't give yourselves
 to these unnatural men -
 machine men with machine minds
 and machine hearts!
 You are not machines!
 You are not cattle! You are men!
 You have the love of humanity
 in your hearts.
 You don't hate.
 Only the unloved hate.
 The unloved and the unnatural.
 Soldiers, don't fight for slavery,
 fight for liberty!
 In the 17th chapter of Saint Luke
 it is written…
 "The kingdom of God is within man."
 Not one man nor a group of men,
 but in all men - in you!
 You the people have the power -
 the power to create machines,
 the power to create happiness!
 You the people have the power
 to make this life free and beautiful…
 to make this life a wonderful adventure.
 Then, in the name of democracy,
 let us use that power!
 Let us all unite!
 Let us fight for a new world,
 a decent world…
 that will give men a chance to work…
 that will give youth a future
 and old age a security.
 By the promise of these things,
 brutes have risen to power.
 But they lie. They do not fulfill that promise.
 They never will!
 Dictators free themselves,
 but they enslave the people.
 Now let us fight to fulfill that promise!
 Let us fight to free the world…
 to do away with national barriers,
 to do away with greed…
 with hate and intolerance.
 Let us fight for a world of reason,
 a world where science and progress…
 will lead to all men's happiness.
 Soldiers, in the name of democracy,
 let us all unite!
 …
 The glorious future…
 that belongs to you, to me…
 and to all of us.